Indonesia has over 90 million hectares of tropical forests, the third-largest area in the world after Brazil and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Indonesia’s peatlands store about 35 billion tons of carbon. When these peatlands are drained, burned and replace by plantations, it releases thousands of tons of carbon dioxide and sets the stage for devastating forest fires.

As recently as the 1960s, 82% percent of Indonesia was forested. Rainforest cover has steadily declined and now, just under half (49%) of the country’s original forest cover remains. Much of this remaining cover consists of logged-over and degraded forest.

Oil palm and wood fiber plantations (mainly for the pulp and paper industries), are the two largest contributors to forest loss in Indonesia. Between 2000 and 2015, nearly 1.6 million hectares and 1.5 million hectares of primary forests—an area larger than Switzerland — were converted to oil palm and wood fiber plantations respectively.

Indonesia is now the world’s third largest emitter of greenhouse gasses after the U.S. and China, with 85% of its emissions profile coming from rainforest and peatland degradation and loss.

An estimated 23% of Indonesia is made up of Indigenous and community lands, although only 0.5% of land is legally recognized as such.


Dr. Guciano has worked on a wide variety of assignments for multilateral and bilateral donors, as well as directly for host governments, private sector clients, NGOs and indigenous groups in Indonesia and Asia-Pacific. He has 25 years of experience in designing, implementing and evaluating programs and projects and executing business and investment. He has managed complex implementation activities and has a range of skills and experience in economic and community development, finance and investment, change management, governance and market reform, health, education, sustainability, climate change, disaster, conflict, capacity building. 

Dr. Guciano has led multiple activities for the protection of forests and indigenous peoples; he is the co-founder of Equity to Equator (Eq2) an organization working for environmental rehabilitation, representative of an international religious group, has led a delegation for the Interfaith Summit in Bangkok, initiated the first religious symposium on Climate Change , developed a strategy for low carbon development within AIPEG, established the Indonesia Carbon Accounting System (INCAS), developed a  strategy for poverty reduction for forest dependent peoples and designed an integrated strategy for Natural Resource Management and Environment within Kemitraan/UNDP.