Peru is the fourth largest rainforest country in the world and one of the most biodiverse areas of the world.  

Although deforestation in Peru has traditionally been very low, largely due to difficulty of access, roughly 1,100 square miles of Peru's forests are cut down every year—around 80% of them illegally. This forest loss accounts for nearly half of the country's greenhouse gas emissions.

The main drivers of deforestation in Peru are agriculture and livestock, gold-mining, roads and illegal logging. The expansion of oil and gas drilling also poses a major threat to Peru’s rainforests.

Some 350,000 Indigenous people live in the Peruvian Amazon, including several tribes that have yet to establish contact with the outside world.

Legal recognition of Indigenous and community forest rights in the Peruvian Amazon has been found to reduce deforestation and disturbance by as much as 81% in the year following titling, and by 56% the year after.